Excavations are usually supported by reinforced bulkheads made of rectangular panels, or by ranks of piles. Rectangular panels can be executed by means of bentonite mud, through the excavation with grabs (hydraulic or mechanic) or hydrocutter.
Ranks of piles can be, in turns, made by means of traditional excavation techniques using drilling mud.
An advantageous alternative technique is the CSP (Cased Secant Piles), which allows the execution of piles without drilling mud. This alternative offers organizational advantages for the site as well as lower costs due to the reduction of the material to be dumped.
Once the bulkhead is completed, tie rods can be installed to prevent its deformation during the excavation phases.