Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Three major cities in China – Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai – are connected by a series of bridges, tunnels, link roads, and boundary crossing facilities, providing a new direct link between the east and west banks of the Pearl River Delta for passenger and freight land transportation. At the expected cost of approximately $10.6 billion US dollars, the construction of the massive Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge project began in December 2009.
A major project component is the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF) that will serve as a transportation hub and provide clearance facilities for goods and passengers using the bridge. The HKBCF is located on a 150-hectare artificial island that was reclaimed from open waters just northeast of the Hong Kong International Airport. The landing points for the link roads and tunnels will utilize 20 hectares of the island. The remaining 130 hectares will be used for the HKBCF cargo, passenger, and vehicle inspection facilities; offices for the immigration, customs, and excise departments; road networks; and a public transport interchange and traffic control surveillance system.
The artificial island's sea wall was built using a new, non-dredge approach. Large 30-meter-diameter steel caissons were dropped into the sea a few meters apart and joined by a flexible steel wall. As the mud was dug out from the middle, each 450-ton caisson drove itself down towards the hard strata. This new reclamation technique was used instead of the conventional approach of dredging out the soft mud down to the bedrock and replacing it with marine sand. Additional ground strengthening measures were also needed to help stabilize the island’s soft marine mud before constructing boundary crossing facilities and tunnel landing points. Trevi Hong Kong joined these stabilization efforts by installing jet grout columns in a key area of the island.