Artificial Ground Freezing
Artificial ground freezing (AGF) is used for waterproofing and/or temporary consolidation to support the excavation of tunnels, shafts and cross passages under the water table in loose soils or fractured rocks. Artificial ground freezing has been used for decades, mainly in Northern Europe since the 70s.
AGF is safe and environmentally-friendly, as no product is injected or penetrated into the ground; the water naturally present in the ground is frozen by means of cooling agents that never enter in direct contact with the soil or groundwater, thus avoiding any contamination or pollution of aquifers. Once the procedure is completed, thawing occurs naturally.